Friday, November 25, 2011

How to Use a Fire Extinguisher

How to use a fire extinguisher?

1) You must bring the fire extinguishers at the base of the flame, even emptying the extinguisher off to ensure that it has gone completely and there is no danger that back on.

2) For a fire extinguisher to be effective must be used correctly. Although the timing is very complicated, think before acting, you will have only a few seconds and the abuse will serve only to empty the extinguisher and not solve the problem.

3) Pointing the aperture of the extinguisher at the call press then trigger it holding the extinguisher upright.

4) Move the fire extinguisher from left to right covering the whole area of the fire.

5) No fire fight to fire back, you should always keep an eye on the fire zone.

6) In the event that this were not enough, immediately leave the place where the fire and call the fire department. Do not risk your life.

For more information on various types of laboratory apparatus do visit again.

Monday, November 21, 2011

Different Types of Fire Extinguishers

Different Types of Fire Extinguishers

Foam Extinguishers: This is a foam fire extinguishers that results from the chemical reaction of two solutions one is baking soda with foam stabilizing agent dissolved in water, placed in the outer compartment inside the machine, the other solution is aluminum sulphate dissolved in water and placed in the inner cylinder. This reaction produces carbon dioxide in bubbles, their power of suffocation can successfully use this foam to extinguish fires in category "A" and "B".

Soda-Acid Extinguisher: The fire extinguishers is water containing a small amount of sodium sulphate. The effect of the chemical reaction between baking soda and sulfuric acid load is to produce carbon dioxide gas at sufficient pressure to release the water content. This action is almost equal to that of ordinary water, because the gas does not help these fire extinguishers mostly falls into the category "A".

Anti Freezing Liquid: The application of these is the same as the tap water directly, because the liquid used is water with dissolved salts to reduce freezing.

Dry Powder Extinguishers: It is a baking soda with an inert agent such as chalk, dry sand or clay to prevent the baking soda to absorb moisture. The liquid carbon dioxide serves to throw the dry compound. Upon contact with fire, baking soda decomposes into gas, carbon dioxide, carbonate of soda and water vapor, these fire extinguishers fall under the category "B" and "C".

Other points of chemical solution (jet loaded) dissolved in water used a number of alkaline salts, and this fluid is released through carbon dioxide contained in a cartridge placed inside the device. As with the water, the main effect is to suppress and chill. This type of fire apparatus is good for category "A" and also for the category "B" when it comes to small amounts of liquid fire.

Carbon Dioxide Extinguishers: It is a gas which is pure carbon dioxide under high pressure of 70 kilos x cm. Square normal internal temperature, making it liquid gas cylinders or bottles and requires specially built required a light weight and equipped with a special valve. Fires are used in class "B" and "C".

Water Extinguishers (direct jet): The effectiveness of water as fire extinguishers fire is due almost entirely to a cooling effect. Avoid using a direct stream of water in the case of burning oil. For electrical fires water jets launched in direct is not recommended because the water is a conductor of electricity.

Classification of Types of Fires:

CLASS "A" fires are of solid materials, which on burning coals that are opening up cracks cracks into the heart of material such as wood, genders, paper, grains, seeds, etc..

CLASS "B" fires occur in flammable liquids and materials that burn only on the surface in contact with air, such as petroleum products, oils, alcohol, gas, etc..

CLASS "C" fires of this kind can be solid or liquid, but which occur in electrical appliances or equipment that is supposed to generate or conduct electricity.

CLASS "D" applies to trucks, cars, automobiles of any aircraft and boats. But in any case are three classes of fires traditional "A, B, C" or integrated combinations of them.

For more information on various types of laboratory apparatus do visit again.

Thursday, March 17, 2011

Safety Laboratory Precautions

Safety Laboratory Precautions

The physics and chemistry laboratory is a potentially dangerous workplace and so it is necessary to take precautions while handling laboratory instruments to avoid accidents which may be fatal.

Safety Rules for Laboratory Precautions:

- Clarify all your doubts with the teacher and keep her informed of any event to occur.
- Before beginning a practical you must know and understand the processes that are going to take place.
- Avoid unnecessary trips and never run.
- Keep silent and try to stay focused on what you have to do.
- Place the apparatus and reagents away from the edge of the table.
- Never pipette corrosive or poisonous liquid.
- Keep combustible materials away from flames and burners.
- Never look at the mouth of the test tubes or flasks when performing a reaction, in anticipation of splashing.
- In general, all products must be mixed in small amounts and slowly.
- If you accidentally touch or drop any product, wash affected area with water and inform that teacher about the incident.
- Throw solid waste into the trash.
- When finished is finished clean and dry the material before leaving.

Sunday, January 23, 2011

Laboratory Tests on Animals

Laboratory Tests on Animals

Animals are normally used as a laboratory apparatus for tests conducted in laboratories which can't be done on humans but are for the benefit of the humans. Laboratory tests on Animals are known as animal testing, animal experimentation or animal research. These animal research is done various places such as medical colleges, pharmaceutic companies, defense research labs and many other prominent places where new inventions and researches are going on.

These research are normally drug related research and sometimes it also cosmetic related research also. In these animal testing there are various types used such as vertebrates, non vertebrates. The most common ones that are generally used in every other testings are mice, rats, birds, fish, frogs and many others that are not included in the lists. These animal are bred for sole purpose of testing. If they are not bred then they are caught from the wild areas and are smuggled, which earns a good amount of money to poachers.

It is not a new phenomenon of using animals as apparatus for the research work. there are various examples and proof that the animal are being used an instrument for testing. Generally the use of animals have increased in the last century because of the boom in the industrial or scientific sectors. There are around 100 million animal used in the research annually these estimates may go-up because the unregulated use of these living being is unaccounted. It is normally done to conclude what will be the effect of the product on the humans. If is found not suitable of these living beings these cosmetics or drugs are not passed and have to reworked again. Using an animal in place of a human being for the things which are meant for the humans is beneficial keeping in mind of human value. In U.S. and in many other countries there are regulations to use these animals as a vector for testing because it is step to avoid a major untoward incident which may lead to the loss of thousands of lives due to an under quality or substandard drug which is not suitable for humans or other animals is passed into the market.

There should be a law to to regulate the minimum use of animal as much as possible. After all they are also living beings. The ways in which the pain is given to them should be changed and a care should be taken that they are not tortured for the human gains. There are some organizations such as PETA and BUAV who are opposing this practice and want a complete ban but it is not possible but there can be some damage control.

Friday, January 21, 2011

Medical Laboratory Tests

Medical Laboratory Tests

Medical laboratory is a place where the tests are conducted in a clinical specimen or parameters with a view of getting the information about the health of an individual. The tests which are performed in a medical laboratory are done for the diagnosis, prevention, treatment and prognosis of particular disease from which the person is suffering. There are usually two types of medical laboratories for conducting various types of tests. 1) Hospital laboratories are those which are in the hospital itself needed for conducting tests on the patients usually from the hospital. 2) Community pathology center which is required for the random tests which are referred by the general practitioners and medical insurance companies. There are certain tests which may not be able to conducted due to the non availability of the laboratory instruments used, then it is referred to the research centers or the labs having the facility for conducting those tests.

Process for Medical Laboratory Tests:

Normally the testing samples of the patients are taken in a sterilized container in the form of a plastic bag or a bottle. It is sent to the laboratory along with the form containing the information about the type of tests to be conducted on the sample. The form is replaced by the bar-code sticker on the sample and then is proceeded for the tests. The results of the test are fed in the computer containing software required for filling the clinical information. It is then sent to the respective doctor or the center from the samples where brought for the tests. The information is handed cover it the patients in sealed envelope.

All the test conducted are properly supervised by the medical laboratory scientist. The results are checked and signed by a doctor who is M.D. in pathology. If the tests are normal then it is OK if the tests shoe some signs of the disease then it is referred to the doctor or warning sign is marked on the report. It normally takes a day for routine tests including blood, urine or glucose. There are some the test may require a couple of days or more depending upon the complexity of the procedure required.

Thursday, December 2, 2010

pH Meter a Biochemistry Laboratory Apparatus

pH Meter a Biochemistry Laboratory Apparatus

One of the biochemistry laboratory apparatus used to measure the pH of a substance is a pH meter. pH is a quantity for measuring the acidic or alkaline / basic nature of liquids or substances that are in a plasma state. pH meter is a scale having calibrations from 0 to 14 conceptualised and designed by Sorensen. The typical pH meter used today in laboratories consists of a glass electrode connected to a electronic meter which measures the pH by the activity of hydrogen ions nears it tips and displays in digitally on the electronic meter.

When the pH meter shows the reading equals to 7 which is the midpoint of the pH scale it means that the solution is neutral. An exactly neutral solution is not common one of the example of neutral solutions with pH 7 is pure distilled water at 25*C. If the pH is less than 7 the solution is acidic in nature and as the pH goes on decreasing towards 0 the acidity increases and if the pH is more than 7 the solution is alkaline, as the pH goes on increasing towards 14 the solution become more alkaline.

When the pH meter is not in use it should be kept in a wet condition so that the glass electrode does not get dehydrated. It has to be cleaned once in a month by using a cleaning solution of HCl.There are different types of pH meter available ranging from cheap to expensive laboratory instruments.

Types of Microscope and Uses

Types of Microscope and Uses

Microscope is one of the most common laboratory apparatus used in Biological laboratory. It is used to see the minute laboratory instruments or any objects. By using microscope can view objects or organism such as plant cell, animal cell and various types of bacteria without putting any strain on our naked eyes. It also helps in the discovery of new bacteria and other tiny organism which are impossible for our naked eyes to see. Microscope is also used in medical laboratories for conducting blood test and various other tests conducted on the patients.

Microscope needs proper illumination for the proper viewing of the objects, if illumination is not proper the slide viewed may appear blurred or it may not be seen. Microscope is derived from the Greek word micros: small skpoein: to look. the term microscope was first coined by Galileo.
The first type of microscope which was invented is optical microscope and later on various other types of microscopes were developed.

Structural components of microscope:

The three basic structural components of a compound microscope are the head, base and arm.

* Head contains the optical parts in the upper part of the microscope
* Base of the microscope supports the microscope and contains the illuminator
* Arm connects to the base and it also supports the microscope head. It is also used for carrying the microscope.

Optical Components of microscope:

Condenser Focus Knob: It moves the condenser up and down which is used to control the lighting focus on the specimen we want to observe.

Eyepiece: It is used for looking look through the microscope and it is located at the top of the microscope

Aperture: It is a hole in the stage through which light reaches the stage.

Nose-piece: It contains the objectives.

Focus knobs: They are used for focusing the microscope.

Stage: It is spot where the specimen to be viewed/observed is placed.

Condenser: It is used for collecting and focusing the light from the illuminator on to the specimen we want to observe. It is located under the stage.

Iris Diaphragm: It controls the amount of light that has to reach0 the specimen for proper illumination. It is located above the condenser and below the stage.

The various types of microscopes used in laboratory are:

Optical Microscope.
Electron Microscope.
Light Microscope.
Scanning Probe Microscope.
Scanning acoustic microscopes
Fluorescence microscope.
Digital microscope
X-ray microscope

Wednesday, November 10, 2010

Medical Laboratory Apparatus

Medical Laboratory Apparatus

Medical laboratory is a laboratory usually seen in the hospital or medical college campuses. Various types of laboratory glassware and laboratory instruments that are used in medical laboratory are not so commonly used in normal laboratories. So for using these laboratory apparatus training is required without which it may cost the life of the patients or the workers working in medical laboratory.

Most Common Medical laboratory Apparatus are:

Fingertip oximeter
Pulse oximeter
Fingertip pulse oximeter
Cover glass and microscope slide
Flip up loupes
Dental X-ray system
HV-400 Radio Frequency unit
High-speed refrigerated centrifuge
Table-top low speed large capacity centrifuge
Blood glucose monitoring
Suction Machine
Fetal doppler
Blood Pressure Monitor
Blood collection tube
Empty capsule
Vacuum Blood Collection Tube(Fluoride Oxalate tube)
Early Pregnancy Test Kit
Ovulation Test Kits
Disposable Urine Collection Container
Disposable Stool Collection Container
Marquette 3-lead lead wires
Spo2 sensor
Fetal / Maternal Monitor
Dental Loupe
Ultrasonic Homogenizer
Rapid occult blood FOB test cassette
Hematology Analyzer (Blood Cell Counter)
Disposable Plastic Urine Cup
Washing Bottle
Centrifuge Tube
Vacuum Oven
Body and Surface Infrared Thermometer
Hernia Bag
Medical wrapping
Mercurial Sphygmomanometer
Scalpel Blades
Disposable syringe
Inverted biological microscope

Tuesday, November 9, 2010

Laboratory Safety Rules, Precautions

Laboratory Safety Rules

The experiments performed in the laboratory varies according to the type of the laboratory. Physics laboratory contains electric laboratory apparatus where electrical and optical experiments are performed. In chemistry laboratory the chemical reactions are done and the properties of the chemicals are determined. Wherein the biology laboratory experiments involving plants and animals are performed.The experiments are performed on the basis of the the steps mentioned in experiment book which also states some safety guidelines which needs to be maintained while performing the experiments in the laboratory.

Physics laboratory safety precautions / rules:

* Live wires should not be touched.

* Hot Objects should not be touched with barren hands instead of that gloves should be used the most common process is heating of water in thermodynamic experiments.

* Circuit connections should be checked and approved by the teacher and then only the circuit should be switched ON.

* While changing components of the circuit the power should be switched so that one should not experience electric shocks.

* Safety spectacles, gloves and other safety components should be used while handling experiments.

* While handling a mercury thermometer one should take of the mercury spills.

* No other laboratory instruments should be touched or handled which is not involved in the course of experiments.

Chemistry laboratory safety precautions / rules:

* One should not pick up the broken glass with barren hands instead use gloves and the trash to be disposed with safety.

* Equipments such as centrifuges should be properly balanced.

* Precipitates should be separated very carefully.

* One should not taste chemicals or touch chemicals with barren hands.

* Acids should not be strongly heated.

* Glassware should be thoroughly washed and and should be properly dried by heating before performing any experiments involving laboratory glassware.

* Proper precautions should be maintained while sucking liquids with the help of pipette.

Biology laboratory safety precautions / rules:

* Microscope should be handled properly and should be properly illuminated so that the slides are properly visible.

* Safety masks, Lab coat and gloves should be wared while performing the dissection experiments.

* While detecting the blood group a new needle should be used and the used one should be disposed off properly.

Common Laboratory Apparatus Mistakes

Common Laboratory Apparatus Mistakes

While performing the experiments in laboratory there are certain do's and dont's which need to be followed but then too there are some common mistakes committed during the handling of laboratory apparatus which may hamper the expected results of the experiments and the conclusion varies from the from the one to be achieved.

Common mistakes during the handling of laboratory apparatus:

* Heating is done in the test tube only at one point known as even heating which may lead to cracking of the solid substance as well as the glass.

* People don't wear safety spectacles during the heating or cutting experiments are performed by using oxyacetylene flame.

* The chemicals are not taken for the experiments in the proportion prescribed which disturbs the rate of reaction.

* Test tubes are not holded straight but are tilted and so is the mouth of the test tube which may cause serious injuries to others during the evolution of gases from the test tubes.

* The mixtures which have highly concentrated acids and alkali as their components are heated strongly which may lead leading serious vigorous reactions.

* The warning labels on the laboratory apparatus are ignored which which warns about the dangers if not handled with care.

* Usually all the bottles and other laboratory apparatus are labeled but sometimes they are left unlabeled due to negligence.

* Closed systems are strongly heated which leads to high heat content in the system.

* Reagent bottles are picked up at the neck and the stoppers are not closed immediately after the use which may lead to breakage and evaporation of the liquids respectively.

* The experiment is left unattended which may cause a serious damage to the circuit, or some explosive reactions may take place.

* The liquids are entered into to the test tube by keeping the test tube straight which may leads to evolving of bubbles making to believe that it may contain Carbon dioxide which may not be present.

* Flammable liquids are kept near the flame or burning burner which may lead to liquid catching the fire.

* Switching ON the improper circuits which getting it checked by the laboratory in-charge.

* Laboratory Glassware which are hot are washed in cold water leading to the cracking of the laboratory glassware.

* The broken glass pieces are collected with barren hands and then are thrown in the dustbin which may hurt the people.

Friday, August 6, 2010

Common Laboratory Apparatus

Common Laboratory Apparatus

Every laboratory whether it is a physics, chemistry, biology, medical or any other types of laboratory it is always filled with laboratory apparatus. The types of laboratory apparatus required during the course of experiment varies according to the experiment itself. There a large number of apparatus which are used in every laboratory but some laboratory apparatuses has to be used regularly in most of the experiments. 

List of Most Common Laboratory Apparatus

1. Test Tube
2. Beaker
3. Reagent Bottle
4. Test Tube Holder
5. Bunsen Burner
6. Measuring Cylinder
7. Crucible
8. Test Tube Rack
9. Stand and Clamp
10. Plastic Wash Bottle
11. Tripod
12. Round Bottomed Flask
13. Flat Bottomed Flask
14. Dropper
15. Evaporating Dish
16. Desiccator
17. Thermometer
18. Watch Glass
19. Wire Gauze
20. Burette
21. Pipette
22. Graduated Cylinder
23. Centrifuge
24. Microscope
25. Petri Dish
26. Thistle Funnel
27. PH Meter
28. Multimeter
29. CRO (Cathode Ray Oscilloscope)
30. Stop Watch
31. Dissecting Microscope
32. Traveling Microscope
33. Vernier Calipers
34. Screw Gauge
35. Meter Scale
36. Bar Magnet
37. Scalpel
38. Needles
39. Prism
40. Grating
41. Rheostat
42. Resistance Boxes
43. Voltmeter
44. Ammeter
45. Spring Balance
46. IC's
47. Diodes
48. Power Supply
49. Transistors
50. Semi-micro Tube
51. Filter Paper
52. Platinum Wire
53. Galvanometer
54. Heaters (Heating Coils)
55. LED's
56. Thermistors
57. Capacitors
58. Bread Board
59. Connecting Wires
60. Bridge Rectifier

Monday, August 2, 2010

Laboratory Apparatus And Their Uses

Laboratory Apparatus And Their Uses

Every laboratory apparatus has its precise use and the people should have the knowledge about the proper use of laboratory apparatus or laboratory glassware.

The most common laboratory apparatus and their uses are listed below:

Beaker = A container used for measuring the liquid.
Barrette = Used for measuring the volume of the solution.
Wire gauze = used for spreading the heat of a burner(flame).
Test tube brush = It is used to clean the test tube.
Droper = It is used for adding the solution drop by drop.
Magnifying glass = It is used for viewing the minute objects.
Filter paper = It is used for separating the liquid and the precipitate.
Stirring rod = It is used for mixing the liquids or distribution of heat in a liquid by stirring.
Spring balance = used for measuring the mass of the materials.
Forceps = It is used for holding or picking up small objects.
Watch glass = It is used for holding small samples of the substances on which the experiment is performed.
Wash bottle = It is used for dispensing small quantities of distilled water.
Test-tube holders = It is used for holding the test tubes.
Test tubes = it is used for holding small samples or performing small-scale reactions
Pipette - It is used for transferring one substance into another by measuring.
Centrifuge - It is used for separating the materials of varying densities from a colloid.
Thermometer - It is used for measuring the temperature.
PH Scale - It is used for measuring the acidity or basicity of the solution.
Crucible - it is used for heating a small amount of a solid substance at a very high temperature.
Tripod = It is a three-legged stand that supports the wire gauze while heating.
Microscope = It is used for viewing the ultra minute objects by the process of magnification.
Multimeter = It is used for measuring the current, voltage and resistance.

Saturday, July 31, 2010

Biology Laboratory Apparatus

Biology Laboratory Apparatus

Biology is that branch of science which involves the study about life of plant, animal, human any other type of living organism. Biology laboratory is that place which involves performing of experiments from various branches of biology. The laboratory apparatus involved in biology experiments varies according to the requirements. Biology laboratory apparatus needs to very clean, sophisticated, sterilized, rust-free in one word they should be in hygienic condition.

Laboratory apparatus used in biological experiments should be of robust design, reliable, easy to maintain, compatible, user friendly and should be made from that kind of material that is easy to clean and looks good.

Various types of biology laboratory apparatus:

1. Scalpel.
2. magnifying glass.
3. Microscope.
4. Watch glass.
5. Forceps.
6. Slides.
7. needles.
8. scissors.
and many other type of apparatus.

Wednesday, July 7, 2010

Chemistry Laboratory Apparatus

Chemistry Laboratory Apparatus

Chemistry is one of the main branches of science. The study of chemistry is incomplete without the laboratory experiments. To perform the experiments in the chemistry, laboratory apparatus is a must. There are large number of chemistry laboratory apparatus which are used on a large scale in companies, laboratories, pathological centers and various other places.

List of chemistry laboratory apparatus:

Test Tubes.
Alcohol Lamps.
Ring Stand Support.
Filter Paper.
Evaporating Dish.
Watch Glass.
Thistle Funnel.
Petri Dish.
Litmus Paper.
Tripod Stand.

There are still large number of chemistry laboratory apparatus which are not mentioned because they are not the most commonly used they are used depending on the requirement of the experiments

Monday, June 28, 2010

Physics Laboratory Apparatus

Physics Laboratory Apparatus

Physics laboratories will never be complete without laboratory equipments. There are various types physics laboratory apparatus which are of different dimensions and have different uses. The uses of  laboratory apparatus varies according to the branches of physics in which they are required.

List of Physics Laboratory Apparatus :
1. Ammeter.
2. Voltmeter.
3. Multimeter.
4. CRO - catode ray oscilloscope.
5. Resistance box.
6. Rheostat.
7. Micrometer.
8. Vernier Callipers.
9. Micrometer Screw.
10. Telescope.
11. Potentiometer.
12. Capacitor.
13. Microscope.
14. Barometer.
15. Thermometer.
16. Induction Coils.
17. Galvanometer.
18. Travelling Microscope.
19. Spectrometer.
20. Bridge Rectifers.
21. Power Supply.

These are the basic laboratory apparatus used in in a physics laboratory and there are lots more and if yu know some more do let us know.

Monday, May 10, 2010

Laboratory Apparatus

Laboratory Apparatus

Laboratory is a place which has the facilities that help that in doing scientific research, experiments and many other things which may involve many reactions and interactions. While performing any experiment in the laboratory, laboratory apparatus are the most essential without which none of the experiments can be performed. We use these laboratory apparatus in the course of the experiments to collect data and measure various other things.
The laboratory can be of different types such as physics laboratory, chemistry laboratory, biology laboratory and many other types of laboratory.
As there are different types of the laboratories there are also different types of the laboratory apparatus. For the selected purpose to be performed such as physics laboratory apparatus, chemistry laboratory apparatus, hospital laboratory apparatus, biology laboratory apparatus and many other types of the laboratory apparatus.

Some of the common laboratory apparatus used in all types of the laboratory is.
1. Compound microscope.
2. Water distillation unit.
3. Centrifuge.
4. Drying oven / hot air oven.
5. Heating mantels nay many more.